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   2016| April-June  | Volume 53 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 10, 2017

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
In silico evaluation of inhibitory potential of triterpenoids from Azadirachta indica against therapeutic target of dengue virus, NS2B-NS3 protease
Vivek Dhar Dwivedi, Indra Prasad Tripathi, Sarad Kumar Mishra
April-June 2016, 53(2):156-161
PMID:27353586
Background & objectives: NS2B-NS3 protease (NS2B-NS3 pro ) of dengue virus (DENV) is the prime therapeutic target for the development of anti-dengue drug to combat the DENV infection, which is currently an increasing health problem in many countries. In the area of antiviral drug discovery, numerous reports on the antiviral activity of various medicinal plants against dengue viruses have been published. Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) is one among those medicinal plants which is reported to show potential antiviral activity against DENV. But active principle of neem plant extract which has inhibitory potential against DENV NS2B-NS3 pro is not yet reported. The aim of the present study was to explore the inhibitory potential of five triterpenoids from neem plant, viz. nimbin, desacetylnimbin, desacetylsalannin, azadirachtin and salannin, against DENV NS2B-NS3 pro. Methods: The molecular 3D structural data of DENV NS2B-NS3 pro and selected triterpenoids of neem plant were collected from protein databank (PDB ID: 2VBC) and PubChem database respectively. The molecular docking approach was employed to find out the in silico inhibitory potential of the five triterpenoids against DENV NS2B- NS3 pro. Results: The molecular docking results showed that nimbin, desacetylnimbin and desacetylsalannin have good binding affinity with DENV NS2B-NS3 pro , while azadirachtin and salannin did not show any interaction with the target protein. It was observed that the DENV NS2B-NS3 pro binding energy for nimbin, desacetylnimbin and desacetylsalannin were -5.56, -5.24 and -3.43 kcal/mol, respectively. Interpretation & conclusion: The findings attained through this study on the molecular interaction mode of three neem triterpenoids and DENV NS2B-NS3 pro can be considered for further in vitro and in vivo validation for designing new potential drugs for DENV infection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,387 108 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Visceral leishmaniasis epidemiologic evolution in timeframes, based on demographic changes and scientific achievements in Brazil
Renata Vivas Conti, Viviane Fragoso Moura Lane, Lucia Montebello, Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior
April-June 2016, 53(2):99-104
PMID:27353578
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease of chronic evolution which could be uniformly fatal, if left untreated. Human VL was first described in the Americas in 1913 and in 1936 in Brazil. The number of VL cases in Brazil is increasing steadily in the last three decades. Medical literature highlights this change in the disease epidemiology as a recent urbanization phenomenon, with most of the cases occurring in large cities since 1981, different to that observed previously, like a typical rural endemic. The aim of this study was to create a narrative review of the evolution of VL epidemiology since its first description in Brazil. To describe the process of urbanization of VL, timeframes were created historically consistent with the scientific and public health knowledge obtained about the VL and the demographics changes in Brazil, especially considering the extensive migratory movements in the country due to political or economic events. The first phase of VL was the decades of 30-50 when industrialization triggered internal migration process from countryside to the cities; during this period VL was studied for the first time and described as a rural endemic disease with no relevance to public health. Until the second phase, between the 50s and 80s of the 20th century, demography was characterized by expansion of immigration to the large cities and increase in population density in the suburbs with poor living standards. In this period, there was an advancement in the knowledge of the transmission of the disease being described as the first case acquired in the urban environment. The third phase was characterized by the explosion of cases in Brazilian cities and consolidation of urban endemic transmission. The possibility of urban transmission has been known since the 50s; however, the current phenomenon was due to the creation of ideal conditions for the establishment of transmission cycle in Brazilian cities.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,341 117 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Molecular identification of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Pilani region of Rajasthan, India
Kuldeep Gupta, Rini Dhawan, Mithilesh Kajla, Sanjeev Kumar, B Jnanasiddhy, Naveen K Singh, Rajnikant Dixit, Ashish Bihani, Lalita Gupta
April-June 2016, 53(2):149-155
PMID:27353585
Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti is the most important vector of dengue virus infection in humans worldwide. Accurate identification and colonization are the essential requirements to understand vector biology as well as its diseases transmission potential. In this study, we have used molecular approaches for the identification of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that were collected from the Pilani region of Rajasthan, India Methods: Field collected mosquito larvae were colonized under laboratory conditions. Conserved genetic markers, ITS-2 and mtCOI were used for amplification through species-specific primers to identify the mosquito species/ strain. Sequencing result of this strain was phylogenetically compared with other global strains through MEGA software. Results: A comprehensive multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that COI gene of Ae. aegypti has extremely low genetic variability with one of the Indian isolate from Thirumala, Andhra Pradesh region (GenBank: HM807262.1). However, in context of different geographical locations, it indicated close similarity with Thailand's strain and high variability when compared with Madagascar strain. On the other hand, ITS-2 illustrated highest identity with Ae. aegypti of Saudi Arabia (GenBank: JX423807.1) whereas, high divergence was observed from Mayotte, France strain (GenBank: KF135506). Interpretation & conclusion: The findings suggest that this isolate from Rajasthan is similar to other Asian continent strains possibly due to the same origin. Understanding the vectorial capacity of these geographically distributed mosquito strains will enhance our knowledge to improve existing vector surveillance and control programme.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,176 100 -
Molecular docking and simulation studies of gustatory receptor of Aedes aegypti: A potent drug target to distract host-seeking behaviour in mosquitoes
Krishna Kant Gupta, Guneswar Sethi, Manikandan Jayaraman
April-June 2016, 53(2):179-184
PMID:27353589
Background & objectives: It is well reported that exhaled CO 2 and skin odour from human being assist female mosquitoes to locate human host. Basically, the receptors for this activity are expressed in cpA neurons. In both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, this CO 2-sensitive olfactory neuron detects myriad number of chemicals present in human skin. Therefore, manipulation of gustatory receptors housing these neurons may serve as important targets for behavioural intervention. The study was aimed towards virtual screening of small molecules in the analyzed conserved active site residues of gustatory receptor and molecular dynamics simulation study of optimum protein-ligand complex to identify a suitable lead molecule for distracting host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. Methods: The conserved residue analysis of gustatory receptor (GR) of Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae was performed. The structure of GR protein from Ae. aegypti was modeled and validated, and then molecular docking was performed to screen 2903 small molecules against the predicted active residues of GR. Further, simulation studies were also carried out to prove protein-ligand stability. Results: The glutamine 154 residue of GR was found to be highly conserved in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. Docking results indicated that the dodecanoic acid, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester (dynasan 112) was interacting with this residue, as it showed better LibDock score than previously reported ethyl acetate used as mosquito repellant. Simulation studies indicated the structural instability of GR protein in docked form with dynasan 112 suggesting its involvement in structural changes. Based on the interaction energies and stability, this compound has been proposed to be used in mosquitoes' repellant. Interpretation & conclusion: A novel effective odorant acting as inhibitor of GR is proposed based on its stability, docking score, interactions and RMSD, considering ethyl pyruvate as a standard inhibitor. Host preference and host-seeking ability of mosquito vectors play key roles in disease transmission, a clear understanding of these aspects is essential for preventing the spread of the disease.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,149 98 -
Spatial analysis of wing geometry in dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), populations in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines
Thaddeus M Carvajal, Lara Fides T Hernandez, Howell T Ho, Menard G Cuenca, Bianca Marie C Orantia, Camille R Estrada, Katherine M Viacrusis, Divina M Amalin, Kozo Watanabe
April-June 2016, 53(2):127-135
PMID:27353582
Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti (L.) is an efficient vector for arboviral diseases such as dengue. The wings of Ae. aegypti has been extensively studied in order to investigate population heterogeneity and structure by utilizing a landmark based geometric morphometrics (GMs) approach. The aim of this study was to examine and assess the wing geometry of Ae. aegypti in Metropolitan Manila. Methods: In total, 312 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected from 98 sampling points using a mosquito light-trap from May 2014 to January 2015. A complete coverage of the wing was achieved by removing wing scales with chemical and physical treatment, leading to identification of 26 landmarks. Geometric morphometric analyses were employed and the spatial distance pattern was estimated using isolation by distance (IBD) and spatial autocorrelation (SA). Results: The results of the GM analyses revealed population heterogeneity and structuring in Ae. aegypti populations for both sexes using principal component and canonical variate analyses respectively. Moreover, IBD and SA only detected significant spatial structure in male Ae. aegypti populations while female population structures were homogeneous throughout the geographical area. Interpretation & conclusion: The newly modified wing preparation procedure was able to capture a complete coverage of the wings of Ae. aegypti, thus providing a stronger separation power for very close populations in an urban area. It is also noteworthy that the results of IBD and SA supported the findings of GM in the population structuring of male and female Ae. aegypti. The outcome of the study increases our understanding of the vector, which would be useful in developing effective control strategies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,124 123 -
Examination of the specific clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Cetin Kilinc, Ridvan Gückan, Mustafa Capraz, Kenan Varol, Erman Zengin, Zafer Mengeloglu, Elif Menekse
April-June 2016, 53(2):162-167
PMID:27353587
Background & objectives: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal disease, caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus), having a high mortality rate. The study was aimed to evaluate the risk factors, the presenting symptoms and findings of the patients with prediagnosis of CCHF disease, and to compare these variables between the CCHF-positive and CCHF-negative patients. It was also aimed to develop a scoring formula for the diagnosis of CCHF. Methods: In total, 281 patients who were admitted to the Sabuncuoglu Serafeddin Training and Research Hospital, Amasya, Turkey between 2011 and 2015 and were prediagnosed with CCHF based on the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings and risk factors were included in the study. The definitive laboratory diagnosis of patients with prediagnosis of CCHF was ensured via molecular and serological methods. In addition, a mathematical diagnostic scoring formula was developed for enhancing the laboratory results of CCHF. Results: The ratio of certain clinical symptoms such as fever (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), widespread body pain (p<0.001), fatigue (p = 0.001), nausea and vomiting (p = 0.013) in CCHF-positive patients were found to be significantly higher compared to the ratio in CCHF-negative patients. In terms of laboratory findings such as presence of leucopenia (p<0.001), creatine kinase (CK) elevation (p<0.001), thrombocytopenia (p<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) elevation (p<0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (p = 0.002), absence of abnormal findings on chest radiograph (p = 0.042), and the absence of anaemia (p = 0.007), the CCHF-positive patients had higher rates in comparison to CCHF-negative ones. Interpretation & conclusion: It was inferred that certain clinical symptoms and laboratory findings such as fever, headache, widespread body pain, fatigue, leucopenia, nausea, vomiting, high CK levels, thrombocytopenia, AST/ ALT elevation and elevated LDH levels are highly specific and are required to be considered in the definitive diagnosis of CCHF, particularly in regions where this infection is observed as endemic.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,134 93 -
Seroprevalence of West Nile virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi in rural population of Manisa, western Turkey
Hörü Gazi, Nuri Özkütük, Özkütük Ecemis, Gonca Atasoylu, Galip Köroglu, Semra Kurutepe, Gönül Dinç Horasan
April-June 2016, 53(2):112-117
PMID:27353580
Background & objectives: Zoonotic diseases are well recognised threat to public health globally. The information of regional prevalence and associated risk factors allow the national programmes to determine and frame better strategies for their control, as they also provide the actual status of zoonosis in the region. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi among the rural residents of Manisa region, Turkey and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted in rural parts of Manisa, Aegean region of western Turkey in 2012. Blood samples from 324 randomly selected subjects were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies to WNV, CCHFV, F. tularensis and B. burgdorferi with commercially available kits. The demographic structure of the rural residents and risk factors related to lifestyle such as outdoor agriculture activities, animal husbandry, hunting and history of tick bite were questioned and their relationships with positive results were analyzed statistically. Results: It was observed that 49 subjects (15%) had IgG antibodies to at least one of the zoonotic agents studied. The seroprevalence of F. tularensis was highest with a percentage of 7.1% (n = 23). Distribution of the positive results for WNV, CCHFV and B. burgdorferi were 4.3% (n = 14), 3.7% (n = 12) and 0.9% (n = 3), respectively. Older age and uncompleted secondary education were the statistically significant risk factors for seropositivity to at least one zoonotic agent investigated. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that older age (over 50) increased the risk of WNV and CCHFV seropositivity. Interpretation & conclusion: Seropositivity rates were not found to be higher than the expected rates. Further, studies are needed to evaluate the threat of vector borne zoonoses and associated risk factors in the study area.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,081 108 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Mosquito vectors developing in atypical anthropogenic habitats: Global overview of recent observations, mechanisms and impact on disease transmission
Ranjan Ramasamy, Sinnathamby N Surendran
April-June 2016, 53(2):91-98
PMID:27353577
The major mosquito vectors of human diseases have co-evolved with humans over a long period of time. However, the rapid growth in human population and the associated expansion in agricultural activity and greater urbanisation have created ecological changes that have had a marked impact on biology of mosquito vectors. Adaptation of the vectors of malaria and important arbovial diseases over a much shorter time scale to the new types of preimaginal habitats recently created by human population growth and activity is highlighted here in the context of its potential for increasing disease transmission rates. Possible measures that can reduce the effects on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases are also outlined.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,051 125 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Impact of container material on the development of Aedes aegypti larvae at different temperatures
Gaurav Kumar, RK Singh, Veena Pande, RC Dhiman
April-June 2016, 53(2):144-148
PMID:27353584
Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue generally breeds in intradomestic and peridomestic containers made up of different materials, i.e. plastic, iron, rubber, earthen material etc. The material of container is likely to affect the temperature of water in container with variation in environmental temperature. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of different container materials on larval development of Ae. aegypti at different temperatures. Methods: Newly hatched I instar larvae (2-4 h old) were used in the study and experiments were conducted using three different containers made up of plastic, iron and earthen material. Three replicates for each type of container at 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 40, and 42°C were placed in environmental chamber for the development of larvae. Results: At temperatures >22°C, 50% pupation was completed in earthen pot within 4.3±0.6 to 6.3±0.6 days followed by plastic containers (5±0 to 8±0 days) and iron containers (6±0 to 9±0 days). Developmental time for 50% pupation in the three containers differed significantly (p < 0.05) at all the experimental temperature ranges. A significant variation was found in the temperature of environmental chamber and the temperature of water in three types of containers (p < 0.05). The difference in the temperatures of water in different containers resulted in significant variations in the developmental period of larvae. More than 35°C temperature of water was found inimical for pupal development. Interpretation & conclusion: The results revealed the variation in temperature of water in different types of containers depending on the material of container, affecting duration of larval development. As the larval development was faster in earthen pot as compared to plastic and iron containers, community should be discouraged for storing the water in earthen pots. However, in view of containers of different materials used by the community in different temperature zones in the country, further studies are required for devising area-specific preventive measures for Aedes breeding.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  997 93 -
Biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus populations in Mutare and Mutasa districts, Manicaland province, Zimbabwe: Implications for the malaria control programme
Shadreck Sande, Moses Zimba, Peter Chinwada, Hieronymo Takundwa Masendu, Aramu Makuwaza
April-June 2016, 53(2):118-126
PMID:27353581
Background & objectives: Biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus in Mutare and Mutasa districts, Zimbabwe, is little understood. An investigation was conducted to primarily compare indoor and outdoor biting behaviour of the mosquito, as well as blood meal sources and sporozoite rates. Methods: Monthly adult anopheline sampling was conducted from October 2013 to September 2014 using Centers for Disease Control light-traps, pyrethrum spray catch and artificial pit shelter methods. Mosquitoes sampled by light-traps were divided into two cohorts. In one cohort, traps were left overnight and mosquitoes were collected the following morning, while in the other set, mosquitoes were collected hourly from 1800-0600 hrs . Collected females were identified using morphological characters and categorised according to their abdominal status. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify An. funestus sibling species and blood meal sources. Infection rate was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Morphological identification showed that indoor and outdoor catches comprised Anopheles funestus (98.3%) and Anopheles gambiae s.l. (1.7%). Of the 2268 mosquitoes collected, 66.2% were caught by light-traps, and 33.8% were caught resting indoors and outdoors. Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.l. were trapped more abundantly indoors (68%) than outdoors (32%). Both indoor and outdoor An. funestus densities were higher in wet (4.3) than dry season (1.8). In Burma Valley and Zindi areas, An. funestus demonstrated variable nocturnal indoor and outdoor flight activity rhythms, with two peaks during the night; between 2200-2300 hrs and 0200- 0400 hrs. Human blood index in An. funestus was 0.64, with Plasmodium falciparum infection rate of 1.8%. Interpretation & conclusion: The present work highlighted important information on the host-seeking behaviour, blood meal sources and infection rates in An. funestus. The information would be helpful in improving the vector control strategies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  976 110 -
Pseudomonas aeruginosa KUN2, extracellular toxins-A potential source for the control of dengue vector
B Lalithambika, C Vani
April-June 2016, 53(2):105-111
PMID:27353579
Background & objectives: Dengue fever is one of the serious health disease transmitted by Aedes spp mosquitoes. The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically around the world in recent decades. Vector control is one of the important strategies practiced for the control of dengue fever. The emergence of resistance among vectors against the existing insecticides has raised new challenges. The aim of the present study was to identify the larvicidal activity of extracellular toxins from Pseudomonas spp for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Methods: Bacterial isolates KUN1, KUN2, KUN3, KUN4, and KUBS were isolated from rhizosphere soil of the agricultural fields in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Lyophilized culture supernatant of KUN2 (24, 48, and 72 h culture) and the solvent extracts from the diethyl ether, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate were tested against the IV instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. Results: Morphological and biochemical characterization of KUN2 showed its resemblance to Pseudomonas spp. Further, characterization by molecular methods confirmed it as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lyophilized culture supernatant of KUN2 showed more toxicity towards the larvae of Ae. aegypti when grown in the modified medium. Secondary metabolite from the petroleum ether extract was found more toxic to the Ae. aegypti larvae even at low concentration (50 μg/ml). The supernatant of 48 h culture of KUN2 recorded 100% larvicidal activity when compared to other isolates. Further, the rate of mortality was 100% at 24 h when treated with 100 μg/ml of petroleum ether extract of KUN2. Interpretation & conclusion: Among the isolates used for the control of Ae. aegypti, the isolate KUN2 showed increased larvicidal activity when grown in the modified medium. The maximum larval mortality was observed in the solvent extract of petroleum ether. The mortality of the larvae might be due to the effect of the toxic compound present in the extract which would have entered the larvae through its cuticle damaging its whole system and obstructing further development. Further, studies on the toxic compound responsible for the larvicidal activity need to be carried out for effective dengue control.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  947 115 -
Monitoring the efficacy of antimalarial medicines in India via sentinel sites: Outcomes and risk factors for treatment failure
Neelima Mishra, Bina Srivastava, Ram Suresh Bharti, Roma Rana, Kamlesh Kaitholia, Anupkumar R Anvikar, Manoj Kumar Das, Susanta K Ghosh, Rajendra M Bhatt, Prajesh K Tyagi, Vas Dev, Sobhan Phookan, Suman Lata Wattal, Gagan Singh Sonal, Akshay Chand Dhariwal, Neena Valecha
April-June 2016, 53(2):168-178
PMID:27353588
Background & objectives: To combat the problem of antimalarial drug resistance, monitoring the changes in drug efficacy over time through periodic surveillance is essential. Since 2009, systematic and continuous monitoring is being done through nationwide sentinel site system. Potential early warning signs like partner drug resistance markers were also monitored in the clinical samples from the study areas. Methods: A total of 1864 patients with acute uncomplicated malaria were enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies of artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) for Plasmodium falciparum; those infected with P. vivax were given chloroquine (CQ). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to distinguish post-treatment reinfection from treatment failures. Isolates of P. falciparum were also analysed for dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene mutations. Results: Overall, 1687 (91.7%) patients completed the follow-up. In most of the falciparum patients the parasitaemia was cleared within 24 h of treatment, except 12 patients who remained parasite positive after 72 h. Presence of dhfr and dhps quintuple mutation was observed predominantly in treatment failure samples. A daily dose of artesunate of < 3 mg/kg of body weight, age of <5 yr, and fever at enrolment were associated with an increased risk of treatment failure. The AS+SP in P. falciparum was effective in > 95% cases in all the sentinel sites except in Northeastern region (NE). Chloroquine remained 100% efficacious in case of P. vivax infections. Interpretation & conclusion: Till 2012, India's national antimalarial drug resistance monitoring system proved highly efficacious and safe towards first-line antimalarials used in the country, except in Northeastern region where a decline in efficacy of AS+SP has been observed. This led to change in first-line treatment for P. falciparum to artemether-lumefantrine in Northeastern region.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  853 102 -
Spatial distribution and insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue affected urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Ali Arslan, Hamayun Rashid Rathor, Muhammad Uzair Mukhtar, Shumaila Mushtaq, Adil Bhatti, Muhammad Asif, Israr Arshad, Jam Farooq Ahmad
April-June 2016, 53(2):136-143
PMID:27353583
Background & objectives: Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases which is transmitted mainly by two vector species, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) worldwide. As there is no effective medicine and vaccine available, vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent its transmission and outbreak. The aim of the study was to confirm the co-occurrence of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the different localities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan and examine their susceptibility status against different groups of insecticides. Methods: Ovitraps were randomly placed in the study localities. The number of eggs from all the ovitraps were counted and incubated for hatching in Medical Entomology and Disease Vector Control (MEDVC) insectarium for rearing up to adult stage. The adults were then identified by using the pictorial keys. Spatial distribution and aggregation of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations was determined by using Index of dispersion or variance to mean ratio and k values of the negative binomial distribution. The susceptibility status of both the species against different insecticides was assessed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard bioassay tests. Results: The results showed that there was coexistence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and the aggregation of their eggs was also observed in all the localities studied in Rawalpindi. Larval bioassays of both the populations exhibited incipient resistance against temephos while adult susceptibility testing results showed that both the species were resistant to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and permethrin. Interpretation & conclusion: The results suggested that all the field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus existed together and showed qualitative changes in their susceptibility status. Resistance against deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was not confirmed and further investigation was recommended to confirm the change in their susceptibility status. This study could help public health authorities to apply simultaneous control activities on both species due to their coexistence and also resistance management strategies should be formulated to slow down the process of development of resistance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  837 109 -
CASE REPORTS
Expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to northwest sub-Himalayan region of India: A case series
Sujeet Raina, Rashmi Kaul Raina, Rajesh Sharma, Baldev Singh Rana, Anita Bodh, Manupriya Sharma
April-June 2016, 53(2):188-191
PMID:27353591
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  767 95 -
Molecular confirmation of scrub typhus infection and characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi genotype from Karnataka, India
Munegowda Koraluru, Indira Bairy, Rahul Singh, Muralidhar Varma, John Stenos
April-June 2016, 53(2):185-187
PMID:27353590
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  758 83 -
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
NS1 antigen positivity rate in canine sera from dengue endemic area
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
April-June 2016, 53(2):192-192
PMID:27353592
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  649 89 -