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   2015| April-June  | Volume 52 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 10, 2017

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Comparison of E and NS1 antigens capture ELISA to detect dengue viral antigens from mosquitoes
Day-Yu Chao, Yi-Jung Liu, Wen-Fan Shen, Wu-Chun Tu, Jedhan Ucat Galula, Han-Chung Wu
April-June 2015, 52(2):134-141
PMID:26119545
Background & objectives: In the absence of an effective vaccine or specific antiviral therapy against dengue infection, the only available control measure remains focusing on the incrimination and reduction of vector (mosquito) populations to suppress virus transmission. Diagnosis of dengue in laboratory can be carried out using several approaches, however, their sensitivity and specificity vary from test-to-test. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and stability of viral envelope (E) and NS1 antigens detected by ELISA in dengue virus infected mosquitoes. Methods: An in-house developed E-ELISA to detect dengue E antigens was first characterized by using cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb) 42-3 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector antibodies, respectively. The sensitivity of E-ELISA was compared with the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag kit using experimentally infected or field-caught mosquitoes. Results: Our results demonstrated that the E-ELISA was capable of detecting viral antigens with the sensitivity of 69.57, 100, 52.38 and 66.67% for DENV-1 to DENV-4 infected mosquito pools, respectively. This was comparable to the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag kit, detecting 100% of DENV-1 infected mosquito pools. Among 124 field-collected mosquito pools collected in the vicinity of localized outbreak areas; both E-ELISA and NS1 Ag kit confirmed nine RT-PCR positive samples with sensitivity and concordance rate up to 100%. Interpretation & conclusion: With the future potential of antigen capture ELISA to be used in the resource deprived regions, the study showed that E-ELISA has similar sensitivity and antigen stability as NS1 Ag kit to complement the current established virological surveillance in human. The improvement of the sensitivity in detecting DENV-3/4 will be needed to incorporate this method into routine mosquito surveillance system.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  973 75 -
Molecular determination of antifolate resistance associated point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes among the field samples in Arunachal Pradesh
Jitendra Sharma, SA Khan, Prafulla Dutta, Jagadish Mahanta
April-June 2015, 52(2):116-121
PMID:26119542
Background & objectives: Antimalarial resistance in P. falciparum malaria parasite creates a serious obstacle in malaria control programme. Keeping this in mind, in the present study antifolate resistance associated point mutations in P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) genes among the field samples in Arunachal Pradesh were determined. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 145 suspected malaria patients/healthy control subjects in malarious areas of Lohit and Changlang districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India during January 2012 to December 2013. Results: In microscopic slide examination, 51.03% (74/145) were found malaria positive. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection was observed in 62.16% (46/74) of total malaria positive cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed in all the P. falciparum positive samples for detection of 648 bp of Pfdhfr and 710 bp of Pfdhps genes. All the amplified products were analysed for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in dhfr and dhps genes. A total of four different genotypes of Pfdhfr gene were observed, of which double mutant allele ANRNI was mostly prevalent and it was found in 65.22% (30/46) cases. Likewise, four different haplotypes of Pfdhps gene were detected, of which triple mutant allele AGEAA shares 69.57% (32/46) followed by other haplotypes. In Pfdhfr-Pfdhps two locus mutations analysis, two isolates in Changlang district had shown quintuple mutant haplotype AIRNL-AGEAA, likely to be associated with treatment failure. The P. falciparum two locus dhfr-dhps haplotype (ANRNI-AGEAA) was observed in 56.52% (26/46) cases. Interpretation & conclusion: Overall, high grade of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance associated genetic polymorphisms were observed among the P. falciparum parasite population in Arunachal Pradesh during the study period.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  879 89 -
Boric acid ovicidal trap for the management of Aedes species
L Charlet Bhami, S Sam Manohar Das
April-June 2015, 52(2):147-152
PMID:26119547
Background & objectives: The use of low concentrations of boric acid as a potential and effective control agent for the eggs and immature stages of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is found to be safe and effective as compared to synthetic chemical insecticides. The study aims to determine the ovicidal concentration of boric acid, its effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the larval mortality concentration for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Methods: The ovicidal concentration of boric acid was determined by incubating the eggs in different concentrations of boric acid (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%). Different dilutions of boric acid were taken in the oviposition cup and the ovicidal concentration, effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the mean survival/mortality rate of III and IV instar Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined. Results: The ovicidal concentration of boric acid for 100% mortality in Aedes sp eggs is 1%. Effective concentration for the oviposition attraction is 0.5%. At 1% concentration, larvae of both the species died within 24 h. Interpretation & conclusion: Boric acid is less toxic compared to different pesticides, and in low concentrations, it attracts the ovipositing female Aedes sp as well as fertile males. Dilute boric acid solution is an effective ovitrap since the eggs laid by mosquitoes either die or the larvae that hatch out from them do not survive in boric acid. Boric acid kills the males that come in contact with the solution, which are attracted to the trap by the females hovering around.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  861 104 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review
Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu, Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera
April-June 2015, 52(2):111-115
PMID:26119541
Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  846 93 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Vectorial capacity of Culex gelidus (Theobald) mosquitoes to certain viruses of public health importance in India
AB Sudeep, YS Ghodke, RP George, VS Ingale, SD Dhaigude, MD Gokhale
April-June 2015, 52(2):153-158
PMID:26119548
Background & objectives: Culex gelidus, a widely prevalent mosquito in India and Southeast Asia region, is an important vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Experimental studies have shown its potential to transmit West Nile, Kunjin, Murray Valley encephalitis and Ross River viruses. An attempt was therefore made to study its susceptibility and vector competence to some of the arboviruses of public health importance in India. Methods: Mosquitoes were infected with six viruses, viz. JEV, chikungunya (CHIKV), Chandipura (CHPV), Chittoor (CHITV), Ingwavuma (INGV) and Umbre (UMBV) by intra thoracic inoculation to determine virus susceptibility and vector competence. Growth kinetics of the viruses were studied by determining the titres of inoculated mosquitoes on different days post-infection by titration in Vero E6 cells. Vector competence was studied by detecting the presence of the viruses in saliva of infected mosquitoes. Results: All the six viruses were replicated in Cx. gelidus. JEV, CHPV, CHIKV and CHITV yielded > 5 log 10 TCID 50 /ml virus while UMBV and INGV yielded approx 4 log 10 TCID 50 /ml virus. JEV, CHIKV and CHITV could be detected in the saliva of the infected mosquitoes, while CHPV, INGV and UMBV could not be detected in the saliva of the infected mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusion: Replication potential and vector competence of Cx. gelidus to some of the viruses of public health importance in India, viz. JEV, CHIKV, CHITV etc, pose a serious threat to general population, especially in the wake of spurt in its population in certain parts of India.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  821 100 -
Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape among certain species of Aedes mosquitoes in District Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India
Ritwik Mondal, N Pemola Devi, RK Jauhari
April-June 2015, 52(2):122-128
PMID:26119543
Background & objectives: Insect wing morphology has been used in many studies to describe variations among species and populations using traditional morphometrics, and more recently geometric morphometrics. A landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of the wings of three species of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae), viz. Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. pseudotaeniatus, at District Dehradun was conducted belling on the fact that it can provide insight into the population structure, ecology and taxonomic identification. Methods: Adult Aedes mosquito specimens were randomly collected using aerial nets and morphologically examined and identified. The landmarks were identified on the basis of landmark based geometric morphometric analysis thin-plate spline (mainly the software tps-Util 1.28; tps-Dig 1.40; tps-Relw 1.53; and tps-Spline 1.20) and integrated morphometrics programme (mainly twogroup win8 and PCA win8) were utilized. Results: In relative warp (RW) analysis, the first two RW of Ae. aegypti accounted for the highest value (95.82%), followed by Ae. pseudotaeniatus (90.89%), while the lowest (90.12%) being recorded for Ae. albopictus. The bending energies of Ae. aegypti and Ae. pseudotaeniatus were quite identical being 0.1882 and 0.1858 respectively, while Ae. albopictus recorded the highest value of 0.9774. The mean difference values of the distances among Aedes species performing Hotelling's T 2 test were significantly high, predicting major differences among the taxa. In PCA analysis, the horizontal and vertical axis summarized 52.41 and 23.30% of variances respectively. The centroid size exhibited significant differences among populations (non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, H = 10.56, p < 0.01). Interpretation & conclusion: It has been marked out that the geometric morphometrics utilizes powerful and comprehensive statistical procedures to analyze the shape differences of a morphological feature, assuming that the studied mosquitoes may represent different genotypes and probably come from one diverse gene pool.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  826 92 -
Evaluation of knowledge of the healthcare personnel working in Giresun province regarding Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever before and after educational training
Safiye Koculu, Ahsen Oncul, Ozgur Onal, Zuhal Yesilbag, Nuray Uzun
April-June 2015, 52(2):166-170
PMID:26119550
Backgrounds & objectives: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a highly fatal and contagious tick-borne viral disease. Healthcare workers (HCWs) should know how and with which symptoms can CCHF patients attend to hospitals, and be aware of nosocomial transmission capability. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of HCWs working in Giresun province regarding CCHF. Methods: This research was carried out during an educational programme arranged for healthcare personnel working in district state hospitals in June 2012. In total, 428 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire including personal demographic characteristics, general knowledge of CCHF disease, knowledge of nosocomial transmission and infection control during hospitalization. Results: Almost all participants (95.3%) knew that the workers in livestock and agriculture were at risk. About 93.5% of participants knew that tick bite is the cause of CCHF transmission. In contrast to this high ratio, only 73 and 77% workers knew that CCHF can be transmitted by direct contact with animal's or patient's blood and body fluids, but after imparting relevant information in the form of one hour lecture given by a doctor expertised in infectious diseases, 92% gave correct answers. Nearly, all healthcare workers were aware that ticks should be removed by using fine-tipped tweezers without crushing (90.7%). Doctors were the most and the laboratory personnel the least well-informed groups. The knowledge degree significantly increased from 67.48 ± 13.89 to 80.92 ± 10.80 points after providing the CCHF related information (p<0.05). Interpretation & conclusion: It was observed that the healthcare personnel working in district state hospitals of the province were moderately aware of CCHF disease. There is possibility of achieving improvement in their knowledge by educating them regarding CCHF and such educational programmes should be conducted from time-to-time.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  834 81 -
Detection of dengue virus in individual Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Delhi, India
Kumar Vikram, BN Nagpal, Veena Pande, Aruna Srivastava, Rekha Saxena, Himmat Singh, Anushrita , Sanjeev K Gupta, NR Tuli, NK Yadav, Telle Olivier, Paul Richard, Neena Valecha
April-June 2015, 52(2):129-133
PMID:26119544
Background & objectives: Delhi, the capital city of India, has so far witnessed several outbreaks of dengue fever since 1967 (last one reported in 2013). Improved virological and entomological surveillance are the only tools that can help in prevention of dengue as well as in the development of dengue control programmes. The aim of the study was to conduct a prospective field study to detect dengue virus in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected from various localities represented by different socioeconomic groups in Delhi. Methods: The study areas were selected and categorized into high, medium and low income groups on the basis of socioeconomical characteristics of the resident population, where dengue cases were reported during the past three years by MCD. Dengue viral infection was detected in the head squash of each adult mosquito by immunofluorescent assay (IFA) employing monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus (DENV). A total of 2408 females and 1206 males of Ae. aegypti were collected and tested by IFA. Results: Out of 2408 Ae. aegypti females, 14 were found positive, with minimum infection rate (MIR) of 5.8 per 1000 mosquitoes. Among the 18 study areas, 11 localities were found positive for dengue virus infection. Low income group (LIG) areas showed highest mosquito infectivity (9.8), followed by medium income group (MIG), i.e. 6.2; while least was observed in high income group (HIG), i.e. 1.3. No vertical transmission of dengue virus could be detected in 1206 Ae. aegypti males collected. Interpretation & conclusion: The study concludes that there was high MIR in the identified localities of low and medium income groups. Estimation of MIR in a female Aedes mosquito in the existing arsenals for dengue surveillance would be an added advantage for early warning of dengue outbreak. The presence of infected mosquitoes in identified localities of Delhi was alarming and require rigorous vector surveillance so that the severe outbreaks can be prevented.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  824 90 -
Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos from three districts of Tamil Nadu, India
R Muthusamy, MS Shivakumar
April-June 2015, 52(2):159-165
PMID:26119549
Background & objectives: Dengue is the most rapidly expanding arboviral disease in India. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever. Chemical insecticides have long been used in the vector control programmes along with other control measures. However, continuous use of insecticides targeting Ae. aegypti may lead to development of insecticide resistance. Though resistance in Ae. aegypti has been reported, the mutation in ace-1 gene associated with temephos resistance is not reported in natural populations. The present study aims to evaluate the susceptibility/resistance status of Ae. aegypti to temephos from three districts of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Ae. aegypti larvae were sampled from different locations in three districts, viz., Dharmapuri, Salem and Namakkal. The standard WHO larval bioassay, biochemical assays and spotting of specific mutation (G119S) in the acetylcholinesterase gene, which is associated with organophosphate resistance, were carried out by PCR and sequencing. Results: The results showed that larvae from Namakkal (NKL) population had an alteration in their susceptibility status (RR = 6.9 fold), while the other populations were moderately susceptible to insecticides. Biochemical assay showed increased activity for α- and β-esterase in NKL, as well as evidence of acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. G119S mutation was detected in this population with high frequency of 0.24. Interpretation & conclusion: The high activity of esterase, mixed-function oxidase (MFO) and ace-1 mutation frequency were closely associated with temephos resistance. Early detection of resistance alleles in natural vector population could be useful for the successful implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies. The results of this study provide baseline data on temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti populations.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  807 93 -
Effectiveness and feasibility of methanol extracted latex of Calotropis procera as larvicide against dengue vectors of western Rajasthan, India
Manju Singhi, Anil Purohit, Sushmita Chattopadhyay
April-June 2015, 52(2):142-146
PMID:26119546
Background & objectives:Identification of novel effective larvicide from natural resources is essential to combat developing resistances, environmental concerns, residue problems and high cost of synthetic insecticides. Results of earlier laboratory findings have shown that Calotropis procera extracts showed larvicidal, ovicidal and refractory properties towards ovipositioning of dengue vectors; further, latex extracted with methanol was found to be more effective compared to crude latex. For testing efficacy and feasibility of extracted latex in field, the present study was undertaken in different settings of Jodhpur City, India against dengue vectors. Methods:Study areas were selected based on surveillance design for the control of dengue vectors. During the study period domestic and peri-domestic breeding containers were treated with methanol extracted latex and mortality was observed after 24 h as per WHO guidelines. Latex was manually collected from internodes of Calotropis procera and extracted using methanol (AR) grade. Results:Methanol extracted latex of C. procera was found effective and feasible larvicide against dengue vectors in the field conditions. Cement tanks, clay pots and coolers (breeding sites) were observed as key containers for the control of dengue transmission. Interpretation & conclusion:Today environmental safety is considered to be very important. Herbal composition prepared by the extraction of latex of C. procera can be used as an alternative approach for the control of dengue vectors. This will reduce the dependence on expensive products and stimulate local efforts to enhance the public involvement.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  804 78 -
SHORT RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
Molecular detection of scrub typhus in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
K Usha, E Kumar, Usha Kalawat, B Siddhartha Kumar, A Chaudhury, D.V.R. Sai Gopal
April-June 2015, 52(2):171-174
PMID:26119551
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  751 94 -
First observations of homodynamic populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Southwest Europe
Rubén Bueno-Mari, Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró
April-June 2015, 52(2):175-177
PMID:26119552
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  653 90 -
Declining trend of malaria in Car Nicobar Island, inhabited by the Nicobarese tribe: Plausible factors
IP Sunish, Zahid Ali Khan, AN Shriram, P Vijayachari
April-June 2015, 52(2):178-181
PMID:26119553
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  589 97 -
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Residual microfilaraemia in rural pockets of south India after five rounds of DEC plus albendazole administration as part of the LF elimination campaign
M Kalimuthu, IP Sunish, J Nagaraj, A Munirathinam, V Ashok Kumar, N Arunachalam, GB White, BK Tyagi
April-June 2015, 52(2):182-184
PMID:26119554
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  589 72 -