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Chemical constituents and strong larvicidal activity of Solanum xanthocarpum among selected plants extracts against the malaria, filaria, and dengue vectors

1 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Dwarka, New Delhi-110077; Department of Biochemistry, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya Bihar-824234, India
2 Department of Botany, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India
3 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Dwarka, New Delhi-110077, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya Bihar-824234, India

Correspondence Address:
Himmat Singh,
Scientist E, Vector Biology, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Delhi-110077, India.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.361177

Background & objectives: The role of mosquitoes is instrumental in the transmission of various diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases account for a significant share of the global burden of total infectious diseases. Vector control is the principal method for the control of these mosquitoes-borne diseases. Plant-derived insecticides serve as an effective alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study has been undertaken to assess the larvicidal potential of methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum, Parthenium hysterophorus, Manihot esculenta, and Chamaecyparis obtusa. Methods: Larvicidal activity was tested against the early four-stage instar larvae of laboratory-reared susceptible strains of the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus at 20 to 120 ppm concentrations. Further, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses were carried out to identify the bioactive compounds present in the methanolic and petroleum ether leaf extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum for designing a larvicidal product in future. Results: After 72 hours of exposure the high larvicidal activities were observed in methanolic and petroleum ether leaves extract of S. xanthocarpum against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The larvicidal activities for methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of S. xanthocarpum with LC50 = 09.201 and 12.435 ppm and LC90 = 21.578 and 27.418 ppm for An. stephensi; LC50 = 11.450 and 10.026 ppm and LC90 = 26.328 and 22.632 ppm for Ae. aegypti and LC50 = 12.962 and 13.325 ppm and LC90 = 26.731 and 30.409 ppm at 20 to 120 ppm, respectively, were found to be most effective GC-MS analysis revealed 43 compounds, amongst these phytol (13.09%), 3-allyl-2-methoxy phenol (9.55%), (9Z, 12Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoyl chloride (7.93%), linoleic acid (5.45%), alpha-tocospiro B (5.08%) and hexadecanoic acid (4.35%) were identified as major compounds. Interpretation & conclusion: Present work showed that leaf extracts of S. xanthocarpum are a source of potential natural candidate that possess several phytochemicals which can be explored further for the development of ecologically safer mosquito control products.

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