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Mosquito larvicidal potential of Solanum xanthocarpum leaf extract derived silver nanoparticles and its bio-toxicity on non-target aquatic organism

1 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Dwarka, New Delhi-110077, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya Bihar -824234, India

Correspondence Address:
Himmat Singh,
GIS, Taxonomy, HIA & OVBD Division, National Institute of Malaria research, Delhi - 110077
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.325635

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes are insects of public health importance that act as a vector to transmit various vector-borne diseases in humans including dengue, malaria, filariasis and yellow fever, worldwide. The continued employed synthetic insecticides have developed resistance in mosquitoes. Nano-based botanical insecticides can be considered as the best alternative due to several advantages such as simple, no-pathogenic, biodegradable and safe to environment. The present research reported the maximum larvicidal potential of AgNPs derived from the leaf extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against the third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus over its crude leaf extract. Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was done by adding leaf extract into silver nitrate solution in a conical flask. The characterization of AgNPs was done using different techniques such as UV-Vis, SEM, TEM, XRD, DLS and SAED. FT-IR analysis was done in order to find out compound responsible for bio-reduction of silver nitrate. Larvicidal activity of AgNPs was checked against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus according to WHO standard protocol and toxicity was also evaluated against Poecilia reticulate. Results: A change in colour was observed indicating the synthesis of AgNPs which was further confirmed by a strong surface plasmon resonance peak at 421nm under the UV-Vis spectrum. SEM and TEM micrographs exhibited the most common shape of AgNPs was spherical. XRD spectrum showed crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. FT-IR spectrum showed the presence of various functional groups such as carboxyl and hydroxyl which might be responsible for bio-reduction and capping of silver nanoparticles. Further, silver nanoparticles were very effective against An.stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 1.90, 2.36, 2.93, 3.82, 4.31 and 7.63ppm, respectively as compared to aqueous leaf extract after 72h of exposure and were non-toxic against non-targeted organism P. reticulata. Interpretation & conclusion: From the above finding, it can be concluded that the fabricated AgNPs can be promising eco-friendly tools for controlling mosquito vectors.

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