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Current status and future prospects of multi-antigen tick vaccine

1 Entomology Laboratory, Parasitology Division, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, Bareilly, India
2 Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Srikant Ghosh,
Entomology Laboratory, Parasitology Division, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, Bareilly
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.321739

Ticks are blood sucking ectoparasite that transmit several pathogens to humans and animals. Tick management focusing on use of chemicals has several drawbacks including development of multi-acaricide resistant tick populations. To minimize the use of chemicals on animals and on the environment, immunization of natural hosts is considered a viable component of Integrated Tick Management System. Most of the tick vaccine trials are focused on single antigen immunization directed against homologous challenge. From commercial point of view, vaccination against one given tick species is not a feasible option. In this context, multi-antigen vaccines comprising of candidate antigens of multiple tick species or both ticks and tick-borne pathogens have commercial potential. Different strategies are considered for the development of multi-antigen tick and/or tick-borne pathogen vaccines. Further, the efficacy of vaccine can be improved by adopting the 'omics' tools and techniques in selection of novel antigens and efficient delivery like Lipid Nano Particle (LNP)-mRNA vaccines, viral vector vaccine, live vector vaccine etc. into the host. The subject has been reviewed to address the current status of multi antigen tick vaccines and formulations of the future strategies for the control of TTBDs of human and animals.

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