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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 363-374

Dispersion routes of the main vectors of human malaria in the Americas: Genetic evidence from the mitochondrial COI gene

School of Biomathematical Research; Biology Program, Faculty of Basic Sciences and Technologies, Universidad del Quindío. Carrera 15 Calle 12 Norte, Armenia, Colombia

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Oscar Alexander Aguirre-Obando
School of Biomathematical Research, Universidad del Quindío. Carrera 15 Calle 12 Norte, Armenia, Colombia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.361173

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Background and objectives: In America, of the 44 species of Anopheles, nine are main vectors of malaria and, of these, genetic information exists for seven. Hence, this study sought to know the gene flow and diversity of the seven principal vectors of malaria at the Americas level. Methods: For the seven species and the sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene obtained from the GenBank and Bold System, genetic analyzes of populations and genetic structure were performed and haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were obtained. Results: For the seven species, 1440 sequences were analyzed and 519 haplotypes were detected. The Hd and π values were higher within a continental context than by countries. Neutrality tests indicated positive and negative values with most of these being significant (p < 0.05). Phylogenetic analyses for all the species recovered three clades with no geographic pattern among them. Interpretation & conclusion: Studies suggest that native species of Anopheles from the Americas have greater haplotype diversity and low genetic differentiation due to the lack of physical barriers to impede gene flow among these populations. Moreover, all the species are interconnected by roadways. This scenario complicates the epidemiological picture of malaria in the Americas.

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