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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 246-252

Field evaluation of biosurfactants, surfactin and di-rhamnolipid produced by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (VCRC B471) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (VCRC B426) against immature stages of the urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi


1 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Unit, DHS, Campal, Panaji, Goa; ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Medical Complex, Indira Nagar, Puducherry, India
2 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Unit, DHS, Campal, Panaji, Goa, India
3 ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Medical Complex, Indira Nagar, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
I Geetha
ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Medical Complex, Indira Nagar, Puducherry 605006
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.342401

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Background & objectives: Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (VCRC B471) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (B426) produce mosquitocidal biosurfactant, surfactin and di-rhamnolipid. The objective of the study was to carry out a small-scale field evaluation of the two biosurfactants to determine the efficacy, application dosage, residual activity and frequency of application against Anopheles stephensi immatures in selected sites in Goa, India. Methods: Surfactin (VCRC B471) and di-rhamnolipid (VCRC B426) were formulated as aqueous suspensions (5% AS), and were applied at the dosages of 34, 51 and 68 mL/m2 and 27, 41 and 54 mL/m2 respectively. Two experiments were carried out with the two formulations. Results: Surfactin (VCRC B471) formulation was effective at all the dosages and there was sustained reduction (>80%) in immature density in the treated sites up to 18 days in experiment 1 and up to 15 days in experiment 2. No pupae were found in the treated sites throughout the study. Di-rhamnolipid (VCRC B426) formulation was also found to reduce the immature density in the treated sites up to 14 days in experiment 1 and up to 15 days in experiment 2. Interpretation & conclusion: For VCRC B471, the optimum application dosage determined was 51 mL/m2 and for VCRC B426, 27mL/m2. The formulations are to be applied fortnightly for effective control of Anopheles. The application dosage determined in the present study can be used for large scale field evaluation to assess their suitability for use in public health programmes for the control of Anopheles mosquitoes vectoring malaria.


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