|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 374-382
Insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles minimus in the tribal districts of Jharkhand state of India
MK Das1, Manju Rahi2, RC Dhiman3, K Raghavendra3
1 National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Unit, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
2 Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ramalingaswami Bhavan, New Delhi, India
3 National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||24-Sep-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||07-Sep-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||25-Mar-2022|
Dr M K Das
National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Unit, Ranchi, Jharkhand
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background and objectives: Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has been a major challenge to vector control programs and updated information to the commonly used insecticides is essential for planning appropriate vector control measures. Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis are the two main vectors prevalent in Jharkhand state of India and role of An. minimus is contemplated in the transmission of malaria in this state. All the districts in the state are predominantly inhabited by the tribal population and are endemic for malaria. A study was undertaken in 12 districts of Jharkhand state to determine the insecticide susceptibility status of the 3 prevalent primary vector species, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. minimus.
Methods: Wild-caught adult female An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. minimus, mosquitoes were collected from stratified ecotypes from different localities of 12 tribal districts of Jharkhand state during 2018 and 2019. Susceptibility tube tests were conducted following the WHO method using test kits. Mosquitoes were exposed to WHO impregnated papers with the prescribed discriminatory dosages of DDT - 4%, malathion - 5%, deltamethrin - 0.05%, permethrin - 0.75%, cyfluthrin - 0.15% and lambda cyhalothrin - 0.05%.
Results: Results indicated that An. culicifacies has developed multiple insecticide resistance in all the 12 districts of Jharkhand state. An. fluviatilis was reported resistant for the first time to DDT in all the districts but was susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin whereas in one district it showed possible resistance to malathion. An. minimus was studied in Noamundi CHC of West Singhbhum district, showed possible resistance against DDT but was susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin.
Interpretation & conclusion: The development of multiple insecticide resistance in An. culicifacies including to pyrethroids, has been a concern for malaria control programmes for effective vector management but a report of resistance to DDT for the first time in An. fluviatlis in all the districts in the state is alarming, An. minimus was found in possible resistance category to DDT in one district and both the species were reported susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin. The result of the present study indicates a need for regular monitoring to assess the insecticide susceptibility to formulate effective vector control measures and resistance management.
Keywords: An. culicifacies; An. fluviatilis; An. minimus; insecticide resistance; vector control
|How to cite this article:|
Das M K, Rahi M, Dhiman R C, Raghavendra K. Insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles minimus in the tribal districts of Jharkhand state of India. J Vector Borne Dis 2021;58:374-82
|How to cite this URL:|
Das M K, Rahi M, Dhiman R C, Raghavendra K. Insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles minimus in the tribal districts of Jharkhand state of India. J Vector Borne Dis [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 May 21];58:374-82. Available from: https://www.jvbd.org/text.asp?2021/58/4/374/325641
| Introduction|| |
Malaria is a complex disease caused by four different Plasmodium species and vectors by approximately 60 species of anopheline mosquitoes. Malaria in India is transmitted by two species, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and remains the most important vector-borne disease in India with a reported incidence of 334,693and 50 deaths in the year 2019. An estimated 54 million tribal belonging to about 40 ethnic communities (constituting around 28% of the total population of Jharkhand) reside in the forest areas. This tribal population accounts for 8% of the total population of India but contributes to 30% of all malaria cases. The state has relatively stable malaria transmission with a yearly average slide positivity rate of 15% over the last three years. P. falciparum accounts for 44% of the cases while P.vivax accounts for 56% and the state contributes approximately 7% of the total malaria cases of the country. Malaria transmission is perennial in Jharkhand state with seasonal variation in the malaria incidence causing malaria outbreak in different districts. The peak malaria transmission is during monsoon (July to September) and the post-monsoon (November to February) months.
An. culicifaciess.l. and An. fluviatiliss.l. are the two main malaria vector prevalent throughout the year in Jharkhand state. An. culicifacies is the dominant malaria vector and An. fluviatilis is found in the winter season in the hilly forested region of the state. However, with the onset of the summer An. fluviatilis starts diminishing and remains at low density during the rest of the year. An. culicifacies is a complex of five sibling species provisionally designated as A, B, C, D, and E, and species B and C are prevalent sibling species reported in the state.
An. fluviatils is prevalent in all the districts of Jharkhand state in the winter season. Cytotaxonomy study of An. fluviatilis revealed the presence of species T and natural infection of An. fluviatilis species T by plasmodium was reported from Jharkhand state. Another important vector An. minimus reported recently, was available from October to February in West Singhbhum (CHC Noamundi, Saranda Jungle) Giridih and Latehar district. An. annularis, the secondary malaria vector plays a role in malaria transmission throughout the year,. An. culicifacies is the major malaria vector in India which contributes to the transmission of about 65% of the total malaria cases in India and neighbouring countries. Insecticidal interventions in conjunction with early diagnosis, improved drug therapies and better health infrastructure resulted in a reduction of malaria cases but the success was mainly attributed to the use of LLINs (Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets) and IRS (indoor residual spraying) of insecticides and also to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). The major confounder for the success of insecticidal intervention is insecticide resistance and is spreading throughout the world. Currently, of the 73 countries with ongoing malaria transmission that provided data, 60 countries reported resistance to at least one class of insecticides, while 50 reported resistance to two or more insecticide classes.
In Jharkhand state, all the districts have been receiving two rounds of DDT spray every year from 1958 onwards (unified Bihar state). After separation of the state from Bihar in 2000, DDT spray continued till 2008. During 2009 synthetic pyrethroids replaced DDT for one year and continued from 2009 to 2015 in the programme. From 2016 spray of synthetic pyrethroid (a-cypermethrin) is being sprayed in districts Dumka, Godda, Sahibganj and Pakur with kala-azar prevalence. The spray of DDT is continuing in other 20 districts of Jharkhand state and LLINs was distributed in all the districts.
At present in India, DDT (organochlorine), malathion (organophosphorous) and deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, alpha-cypermmethrin, lambdayhalothrin (synthetic pyrethroids) are the commonly used insecticides for vector control in public health. Resistance to DDT in An. culicifacies is reported wide-spread throughout the country,,. Resistance to malathion in the state of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh,,, and there are few reports of decreased susceptibility to synthetic pyrethroids in various parts of the country,, including Chhattisgarh.
Rapid development and geographical spread of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors have been reported from various parts of the country. And, updated information on insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors is important for effective control of malaria through vector control interventions. The present paper presents results of the study in 12 tribal districts of Jharkhand state conducted in years 2018 and 2019 to assess the susceptibility status in An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. minimus against commonly used insecticides in public health [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Map of Jharkhand showing location of districts and vector species prevalence where insecticide resistance studies were conducted|
Click here to view
| Material & Methods|| |
The present study on An. culicifacies was conducted in 12 districts (23 CHCs). The district - CHCs were, Simdega - CHCs Kurdeg and Simdega, Gumla - CHCs Bharno and Gumla, Khunti - CHCs Khunti and Murhu, West Singhbhum - CHCs Chaibasa and Bada Jamda, Godda - CHCs Poraiyahat and Sunderpahari, Sahibganj - CHCs Rajmahal and Borio, Giridih - CHCs Gawan and Tisri, Palamu - CHCs Chainpur and Daltonganj, Latehar - CHCs Mahuadanr, Koderma - CHCs Jainagar and Markachho, Chatra - CHCs Hunterganj and Itkhori, respectively. The study on An. fluviatilis was conducted in 9 districts and 15CHCs of the above except in districts Koderma, Chatra, and Dhanbad and study on An. minimus was carried out in Barajamda village of Noamundi CHC in West Singhbhum district.
The survey was carried out in individual districts or in groups of two districts. In each district, two CHCs and five to six villages (about 1% of the total villages in the district) in different terrains i.e., plain, hilltop, foothill, and forest, were selected for the susceptibility test. The study districts were inhabited in the majority with tribal populations namely with tribes Ho, Santhal, Gonds, Munda, Oraon, Mohali, Bhumij, Kols, Kharmalo, Kharwar, Kharia, Birhor, Birjia, Chick, Baraik Magahi, Kortha, Nagpuri and others.
The climate was humid subtropical in the north to tropical wet and dry with an average annual rainfall of about 1000–1500mm and temperature varying between 25°C to 38°C. The study area has rivers, ponds, terrace paddy fields, nalas which are the major breeding habitats for mosquitoes, particularly for anopheline species. The synthetic pyrethroids have been in use for IRS in malaria and kala-azar control programme in 4 districts (Godda, Pakur, Sahibganj and Dumka) of the state and other districts received DDT - IRS.
Mosquito collection, identification, and susceptibility test Mosquitoes were collected from villages in CHCs in the selected 12 districts. Preferentially full-fed female mosquitoes of prevalent anopheline species were collected from cattle sheds, human dwelling and mixed dwellings in early hours of the day from 5.00-6.00 h using a mouth aspirator and torchlight. The collected mosquitoes were kept in a 1ft x 1ft cloth cage with a wet cloth around the cage and brought to the laboratory. The collected mosquitoes are identified to species based on morphological characters using standard key,,,,. From the identified mosquitoes, vector species An. culiifacies, An. fluviatilis and An.minimus, were used for the studies. The adult An. culicifacies mosquitoes were collected from one or more villages within the district with similar ecotype. Susceptibility tests were performed following WHO method and kits to Insecticide impregnated papers with WHO prescribed diagnostic dosages for anopheles’ mosquitoes, DDT (4%), malathion (5%), deltamethrin (0.05%), permethrin (0.75%), cyfluthrin (0.15%) and lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%) obtained from University SANS, Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia. Tests were conducted in a laboratory maintained at 27+-2o C and 70-85% relative humidity respectively. Female mosquitoes were exposed for 1 hour followed by 24 h holding period. Mosquitoes were exposed to insecticides in minimum of 3-4 test replicates and respective controls. Mortality was scored after 24 h holding period. By scoring the dead and alive mosquitoes at the end of the 24 h holding period. The results were expressed in percent mortality. Test mortality in experiments with mortality in control replicates between 5-20%, is corrected by Abbott’s formula, and expressed as corrected percent mortality. While experiments with >20% mortality in control replicates are discarded while mortality <5% are not corrected. According to WHO criteria mortality of 98-100% is designated as ‘susceptible’, <90% as ‘confirmed resistant’ and mortality between 90%-97% as ‘possible resistance (WHO, 2016).
| Results|| |
In the present investigation susceptibility test of An. culicifacies was carried out at 24 CHCs of 12 districts of the state. The result of the susceptibility tests is depicted in [Table 1], [Figure 2].
|Table 1: Response of An. culicifacies to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin|
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|Figure 2: Map showing insecticide resistance status of An. culicifacies in 12 district of Jharkhand state, India. (Map is prepared by taking average of the mortalities observed in the CHCs in the district)|
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An. culicifacies was found resistant in all the 12 districts surveyed.
An. culicifacies was found confirmed resistant in 9 CHCs of 7 districts i.e., West Singhbhum (Badajamda and Chaibasa CHC), Giridih (Gawan CHC), Palamu (Chainpur and Daltonganj), Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC) Koderma (Jainagar CHC), Chatra (Hunterganj CHC) and Dhanbad (Topchanchi CHC), whereas 4CHCs of 4 districts i.e, Giridih(Tisri CHC), Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC), Chatra (Itkhori CHC) and Dhanbad (Tundi CHC) were found in possible resistance category. The rest 5 districts (8 CHCs) viz. Simdega (Kurdeg and Simdega CHC), Gumla (Gumla and Bharno CHC), Khunti (Khunti and Murhu CHC), Godda (Poraiyahat CHC) and Koderma (Markachho CHC) reported susceptible to the insecticide.
An. culicifacies reported confirmed resistance in 10 districts (15 CHCs) and the districts were, Simdega (Simdega CHC), West Singhbhum (Chaibasa CHC), Godda (Poraiyahat and Sunderpahari CHCs), Sahibganj (Borio and Rajmahal CHCs), Giridih (Gawan CHC), Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC), Palamu (Daltonganj CHC), Koderma (Jainagar and Markachho CHCs), Chatra (Hunterganj and Itkhori CHCs) and Dhanbad (Topchanchi and Tundi CHCs) respectively, whereas it was found to be in possible resistance category in 4 districts of 4CHCs i.e., in Simdega (Kurdeg CHC), Khunti (Murhu CHC), Giridih (Tisri CHC) and Palamu (Chainpur CHC). 5 CHCs of 4 districts i.e., Gumla (Bharno and Gumla CHCs), Khunti (Khunti CHC), West Singhbhum (Badajamda CHC) and Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC) were found to be susceptible.
To permethrin, An. culicifacies recorded confirmed resistance in 7 CHCs of 6 districts and the districts were Simdega (Kurdeg CHC), West Singhbhum (Chaibasa CHC), Godda (Poraiyahat CHC), Palamu (Chainpur CHC), Koderma (Jainagar CHC), Chatra (Hunterganj and Itkhori CHCs) respectively, where as it was found to be possible resistance in 7CHCs of 6 districts, i.e., Sahibganj (Rajmahal CHC), Giridih (Gawan and Tisri CHCs), Palamu (Daltonganj CHC), Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC), Koderma (Markachho CHC), Dhanbad (Tundi CHC) and 8 CHCs of 6 districts were found to be susceptible i.e, in Simdega (Simdega CHC), Gumla (Gumla and Bharno CHCs), Khunti (Khunti and Murhu CHCs), West Singhbhum (Badajamda CHC), Godda (Sunderpahari CHC) and Sahibganj (Borio CHC).
To cyfluthrin, An. culicifacies showed confirmed resistance in 6 CHCs of 4 districts i.e., Palamu (Chainpur and Daltonganj CHCs), Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC), Kodrema (Markachho and Jainagar CHCs) and Chatra (Itkhori CHC) whereas 2 CHCs of 2 districts i.e., Giridih (Gawan CHC) and Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC) were found to be possible resistant.
To lambda-cyhalothrin, An. culicifacies recorded confirmed resistance in 5 CHCs of 4 districts, i.e., Giridih (Gawan CHC), Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC), Koderma (Jainagar and Markachho CHC), Chatra (Itkhori CHC), whereas 3 CHCs of 2 districts, i.e., Palamu (Chainpur and Daltonganj CHCs) and Latehar (Mahuadanr CHC) were found to be possible resistance.
Susceptibility tests of An. fluviatilis were carried out at 15 CHCs of 9 districts of the state. [Table 2], [Figure 3].
|Table 2: Response of An. fluviatilis to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and permethrin|
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|Figure 3: Map showing insecticide resistance status of An. fluviatilis in 9 districts of Jharkhand state, India. (Map is prepared by taking the average of the mortalities observed in the CHCs in the district)|
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An. fluviatilis was found confirmed resistant to DDT in all the 9 districts (15CHCs) surveyed and was susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin, whereas it was found possible resistant to malathion in Bharno CHC of Gumla district.
The susceptibility test of An. minimus was carried out at Barajamda village of Noamundi CHC in West Singhbhum district [Table 3]. The result revealed that An.minimus showed 96.7% mortality (possible resistance) against DDT and 100% mortality (susceptible) against malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin.
|Table 3: Response of An. minimusto to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and permethrin|
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| Discussion|| |
Development of insecticide resistance is a major challenge to control malaria vectors and it limits the efficacy of the available tools to achieve the goal of controlling and eliminating malaria. About 125 mosquito species are reported with documented resistance to at least one insecticides
In India, the introduction of DDT in the early 1960s as a residual insecticide in public health sprays into the mosquito control program had a major impact on malaria,,. The problem of insecticide resistance particularly in An. culicifacies and its association with the failure of DDT spray in India including other factors were emphasized. Several malaria outbreaks are caused by An. culicifacies either/or in association with An. fluviatilis in Jharkhand state.
An. culicifacies was reported resistant to DDT in all the 12 districts surveyed in Jharkhand state. Our results corroborate the findings from the results reported so far in other studies,,,,,,. Recent reports have either confirmed or added some more areas with resistance to DDT,,,,,,,,,,,, and also in areas where the DDT spray was discontinued decades ago and was reasoned to the increased stability of the DDT resistance gene.
Our studies further showed that An. culicifacies were found confirmed resistant in 7 districts whereas 4 districts were under possible resistance category and were susceptible in 5 districts. All the districts have shown resistance to DDT and in some to malathion though it was not sprayed in this area so far. The observed resistance could be due to the use of organophosphate insecticide in agriculture/forestry or due to cross-resistance to other structurally related molecules including pyrethroids. To malathion, An. culicifacies reported possible resistance malathion in our earlier studies in Gumla and East Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand.
Resistance to malathion is already reported in An. culicifacies in 13 states for more than 2 decades (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Prdaesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal) of India.
Development of resistance to pyrethroids in 10 districts of Jharkhand state during this 2018–2019 study is a great concern to the vector control programme as the insecticide is being used in the public health program for both the interventions, IRS and LLINs. The susceptibility status with An. culicifacies to synthetic pyrethroids conducted so far in India showed that resistance developed in this species was not widespread and also in the present study the percent mortality was variable and the species mostly reported confirmed resistance status to the 4 pyrethroid molecules tested, deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, and lambda cyhalothrin. Our studies showed multiple insecticide resistance in An. culicifacies from Jharkhand state, India. The resistance to deltamethrin in this species was reported first time in Surat (Gujrat in 2001). Later in Chhattisgarh (2002), Tamil Nadu (2006), Andhra Pradesh (2009), Assam (2009), Madhya Pradesh (2009), Telangana (2009) and Odisha (2014), . The results of our study in Jharkhand indicated confirmed resistance to deltamethrin in 10 districts and was reported susceptible in 2 districts.
There are some studies of decreased susceptibility to synthetic pyrethroids in different parts of the country. In our earlier studies in Jharkhand, An. culicifacies were found susceptible to deltamethrin. In West Bengal, some districts of Odisha namely Keonjhar, Dhenkanal, Sonepur, Gajapati, Cuttack, Jagatsinghpur, Ganjam, Khurda and Baragarh was also susceptible to deltamethrin. The species was reported susceptible to synthetic pyrethroids in some states, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Odisha,,, Gumla district of Jharkhand, Dantewada district of Chattisgarh and Guna district of Madhya Pradesh, it was reported in possible resistance category in Kanker, Bilaspur, Korea and Korba districts of Chattisgarh, Sidhi, Sadhol, Balaghat, Betul Chindawara and Jhabua districts of Madhya Pradesh. However, to deltamethrin, the species was reported resistant in Jagdalpur, Raipur, Dhamtari and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh, Mandla and Dindori districts of Madhya Pradesh and in all the five districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Our present studies indicated that An. culicifacies were found to be confirmed resistant to permethrin in 6 districts whereas 6 districts reported possible resistance category and 6 districts were found to be susceptible in Jharkhand state. In Gadchiroli (Maharashtra) possible resistance to permethrin (0.75%) was observed in An. culicifacies, however, stated to be confirmed. Permethrin is a pyrethroid that was never used in IRS in Gadchiroli. In 2016. LLINs containing permethrin (Olyset Net) have been distributed for malaria control. Probably, exposure to LLINs may be the reason for the development of permethrin resistance are possibly due to cross-resistance to other pyrethroids.
It was observed that An. culicifacies were found to be resistant to cyfluthrin, in four districts (Palamu, Latehar, Koderma, and Chatra) whereas in 2 districts (Giridih and Latehar) the species reported possible resistance category. A study carried out in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra also reported resistance to cyfluthrin (0.15%). In Surat district (1996) within 5 years of use of pyrethroids, An. culicifacies has developed resistance to cyfluthrin and deltamethrin.
An. culicifacies was also found resistant to another pyrethroid insecticide to lambda cyhalothrin in 4 districts (Giridih, Latehar, Koderma, and Chatra) whereas in 2 districts (Palamu and Latehar) the species was in possible resistance category. Study carried out in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra showed resistance to lambda cyhalothrin in this species.
An. fluviatilis is responsible for malaria transmission of about 15% of new cases annually and transmits malaria mainly in hilly, foothill, and forest regions of Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Chhattisgarh. As per NVBDCP reports, it was resistance to DDT in 11 districts from 8 states. An. fluviatilis was found susceptible to DDT in Odisha,. There are some reported data from some districts of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; and Uttarakhand. The species was reported susceptible to DDT in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh in the year 1999 and in districts Angul, Bolangiri, Gajapati, Ganjam, Kalahandi, Kandhamal, Kendujhar, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangpur, Nuapada, Rayagada, Sambalpur and Sundargarh of Odisha state
An. fluviatilis was reported susceptible to malathion in many districts of the states of Chhattisgarh Jharkhand, Karnataka, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Uttarakhand except in Ranchi district of Jharkhand state, Gadchiroli in Maharashtra and district Mayurbhanj in Odisha, where the species was reported under possible resistance category. It was also reported mostly-susceptible to deltamethrin in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Uttarakhand states while it showed possible resistance in district Gadchiroli in Maharashtra.
An. fluviatilis is the major vector of malaria in all the districts of Jharkhand state. It is responsible for high transmission during the post-monsoon period. With the onset of the summer, this species declining and remains at very low density during the remaining part of the year. This species is predominantly endophilic and exophagic but some population rests outdoor. However, malaria continues to remain in all districts. The susceptibility status of An. fluviatilis against DDT was mostly reported from the state of Odisha and our study from Jharkhand.
Our study in Jharkhand state indicates that An. fluviatilis was found to be resistant to DDT in all the nine surveyed districts, whereas in one district (Gumla), it showed possible resistance and it was found to be susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin. An. fluviatilis was found susceptible to malathion and synthetic pyrethroids in most of the studied areas,,,. An. fluviatilis has reported resistance to DDT in 17 districts and to malathion in one district and was susceptible to deltamethrin.
The susceptibility test of An. minimus was carried out at Barajamda village of Noamundi CHC in West Singhbhum district. The result revealed that An. minimus showed possible resistance against DDT but was susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin. An. minimus, major vector is prevalent in the North East region, Odisha and Jharkhand state. This species reported susceptibility to DDT, malathion, and deltamethrin to the North East region, however, there is one region that reported resistance to DDT in the eastern state of Odisha.
| Conclusion|| |
The current study confirms the development of multiple insecticide resistance in An. culicifacies in Jharkhand state which is the most important vector and requires effective strategies for management in the absence of new molecules particularly for the management of pyrethroid resistance the other two vectors An.fluviatilis and An. minimus showed resistance against DDT but were susceptible to other insecticides.
The main challenge faced by the vector control programme is the development of multiple insecticide resistance. Rational and judicious use of insecticides and the introduction of insecticides of other classes with a novel mode of action to avoid or delay the onset of resistance in malaria vectors is required. Regular and intensive resistance monitoring should be the guidance for effective vector control.
Conflict of interest: None
| Acknowledgements|| |
We are thankful to the Director, National Institute of Malaria Research, Delhi for encouraging in preparing the manuscript. The present investigation received financial support from Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. Authors are thankful to Divya K, Scientist B, of ICMR for her support. The laboratory and field assistance given by Dipak Kumar Mallick, Ram Bachan Gupta, Sri Kishan and Saroj Kumar Das, the staff of ICMR-NIMR, FU, Ranchi is gratefully acknowledged. Ms. Reeta Kumari, DEO is also thankfully acknowledged for typing, preparing maps, etc. of the manuscript. The authors are also thankful to SPO and his staff for providing information on malaria incidence. The DMO and his staff of different district of state vector borne disease control programme is also acknowledged for their valuable help in the field.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]