A note on the insecticide susceptibility status of principal malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies in four states of India
Kamaraju Raghavendra1, TK Barik2, SK Sharma1, MK Das3, VK Dua4, A Pandey4, VP Ojha5, SN Tiwari5, SK Ghosh5, AP Dash6
1 National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India
2 National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), New Delhi; P.G. Deptartment of Zoology, Berhampur University, Berhampur, Odisha, India
3 National Institute of Malaria Research (Field Unit), Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
4 National Institute of Malaria Research (Field Unit), Hardwar, Uttarakhand, India
5 National Institute of Malaria Research (Field Unit), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
6 WHO-SEARO, New Delhi, India
Scientist 'F', National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector 8, Dwarka, New Delhi-110 077
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background & objectives: The major malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies Giles is reported to contribute ~ 65% of the malaria cases in India. This species developed resistance to DDT and later to HCH, malathion and also to pyrethroids in some states due to their use in the national malaria control programme. In the present study, insecticide susceptibility of this species was monitored in four states of India.
Methods: To determine insecticide susceptibility status of the major malaria vector An. culicifacies, adult mosquitoes were collected from different localities of 32 tribal districts in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Jharkhand and West Bengal during October/November 2009-10. Mosquitoes were collected from stratified ecotypes comprising a group of districts in West Bengal and individual districts in three other states. Mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with WHO diagnostic dose: 4% DDT, 5% malathion and 0.05% deltamethrin following the WHO tube method.
Results: Results provided the susceptibility status of An. culicifacies to different insecticides used in the public health programme in 32 districts in four states. An. culicifacies was found resistant to DDT (mortality range 0-36%) in all the 32 districts; to malathion it was resistant in 14 districts, verification required in 10 districts and susceptible in eight districts (mortality range 32.2-100%). It was resistant to deltamethrin in four districts, verification required in 11 districts and susceptible in 17 districts (mortality range 43.3-100%).
Interpretation & conclusion: Development of widespread resistance to insecticides used in public health sprays for vector control including to pyrethroids in An. culicifacies in the surveyed districts is of great concern for the malaria control programme as the major interventions for vector control are heavily reliant on chemical insecticides, mainly synthetic pyrethroids used both for indoor residual spraying and for long-lasting insecticidal nets. Thus, there is a need to periodically monitor and update the susceptibility status of malaria vector(s) to suggest alternative vector control strategies for effective disease management.