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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 216-223

Larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus R. Br. (Myrtaceae) leaf solvent extracts against three vector mosquitoes

1 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, PO Box 454, Ngaoundere
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 25253215

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Background & objectives: Due to ever-growing insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors and environmental contamination by synthetic insecticides, plants may be a source of alternative agents for mosquito control. Therefore, the present investigation involved the determination of larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The standard protocol of WHO was used for larval tests. Twenty five IV instar larvae were exposed to various concentrations from 125-1000 ppm for methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and methanol (MF) fractions, from 250-2000 ppm for aqueous extract (AE) and 2500 ppm for Diclorvos. The mortality was observed 24 h post-exposure. The LC50 and LC90 values were determined by Probit analysis. Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed that the presence of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, lipids, fats and fixed oils in MCE; terpenoids, steroids, lipids, fats and fixed oils in HF; terpenoids in CF; tannins and phenolic compounds in EAF and alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenolic compounds in MF. Against Ae. aegypti, HF was the most active fraction with LC50 of 56.25 ppm. Against An. gambiae, HF demonstrated its potential mosquito larvicide killing relatively all exposed larvae at all concentrations with LC50 of 17.11 ppm. Against Cx. quinquefasciatus, only MCE and HF exhibited larvicidal activity with LC50 of 447.38 and 721.95 ppm, respectively. Interpretation & conclusion: Callistemon rigidus exhibited some promising larvicidal activity against medically important vector mosquitoes. Studies are indicated to identify the active compounds from this plant for developing mosquito larvicides

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